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[115] It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014. Learn more about the population, religion and history of Japan and its capital city, Tokyo. [120] In the hope of founding a new dynasty, Hideyoshi had asked his most trusted subordinates to pledge loyalty to his infant son Toyotomi Hideyori. [126][127] Ieyasu led the Siege of Osaka that ended with the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615. [223] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. During the Muromachi period, regional warlords called daimyō grew in power at the expense of the shōgun. Japan will become the first Asian country to host the Olympics twice in the country. Aomori 32. However, the discovery of unique edge-ground axes in Japan dated to over 30,000 years ago may be evidence of the first Homo sapiens in Japan. [183] Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per capita in the world with 14 per 1000 employees. Because they had an agricultural civilization, the population of the Yayoi began to grow rapidly and replaced the Jōmon people, a native of the Japanese archipelago who were hunter-gatherers. See more ideas about japanese sewing, sewing, vintage sewing machines. [317] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times,[318] and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. [283] Karaoke is a significant cultural activity. [275] Japan was a close ally of the United States during the Cold War, though this alliance did not have unanimous support from the Japanese people. [143], The Edo period was a time of cultural flourishing, as the merchant classes grew in wealth and began spending their income on cultural and social pursuits. [265] The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Rhee, Song-Nai et al. [210] After the war Japan signed the Treaty of Versailles and enjoyed good international relations through its membership in the League of Nations and participation in international disarmament conferences. The Tokugawa shogunate imposed a strict class system on Japanese society and cut off almost all contact with the outside world. [231] On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy launched a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This page was last edited on 4 April 2021, at 13:26. 30. [315] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide following. The creation myth comes from the Kojiki, or “Record of Ancient Matters,” the first book written in Japan (dating back to 712) and the Nihon Shoki (finished in 720).The story begins in a limitless, formless chaos of a dark, silent universe. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system.Early Japanese is known largely on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled. [260], Contemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. [156] The shogunate cut the pay of the already financially distressed samurai, many of whom worked side jobs to make a living. Fujiwara no Michinaga, an exceptional statesman who became kampaku in 996, governed during the height of the Fujiwara clan's power[55] and married four of his daughters to emperors, current and future. [160] The scholarly field of kokugaku or "national learning", developed by scholars such as Motoori Norinaga and Hirata Atsutane, promoted what it asserted were native Japanese values. [100] Japan is the world's fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West, the first map made of Japan in the west was represented in 1568 by the Portuguese cartographer Fernão Vaz Dourado.[100]. [320], In motorsport, Japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. [293] Seafood and Japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. Eventually, Japan descended into a period of civil war. Takeuchi, Rizo (1999). [270] The GNP expanded at an annual rate of nearly 10% from 1956 until the 1973 oil crisis slowed growth to a still-rapid average annual rate of just over 4% until 1991. Shōtoku authored the Seventeen-article constitution, a Confucian-inspired code of conduct for officials and citizens, and attempted to introduce a merit-based civil service called the Cap and Rank System. When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He equipped his armies with muskets and trained them with innovative tactics. [154], By the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the shogunate showed signs of weakening. There, in the dim blue death of day Where white tea roses grow, Petals and scents are strewn astray Till night be sweet enow; Then lovers … [284] The 1990s are often referred to as Japan's Lost Decade. Tokyo [29] This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. [115], The Azuchi–Momoyama period began in 1568, when Nobunaga seized Kyoto and thus effectively brought an end to the Ashikaga shogunate. This brought the US into World War II on the side of the Allies. [315] Different legal codes applied to different classes, marriage between classes was prohibited, and towns were subdivided into different class areas. Carter, William R. (1983). [95] In addition to the daimyōs, rebellious peasants and "warrior monks" affiliated with Buddhist temples also raised their own armies.[96]. The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [90], Takauji set up his shogunate in the Muromachi district of Kyoto. Nuclear power was down from 11.2 percent in 2010. The Japanese military failed to defeat the Chinese government led by Chiang Kai-shek and the war descended into a bloody stalemate that lasted until 1945. [257], Japan has one of the world's highest suicide rates. [229] Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its indigenous religion. [308] During the US occupation following World War II , women gained legal equality with men,[309] but faced widespread workplace discrimination. "Modern hominids in the Japanese Islands and the early use of obsidian". Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time. [40] Their government devised and implemented the far-reaching Taika Reforms. [213] Notable literary figures of the era included short story writer Ryūnosuke Akutagawa[214] and the novelist Haruo Satō. 27. [80] It has the 17th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. The imperial court was thus deprived of the tax revenue to pay for its national army. [105] The prime minister as the head of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. The Japanese Imperial Family has a staff of more than 1,000 people (47 servants per royal). [261] Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. [59] Japan's population stabilized during the late Heian period after hundreds of years of decline. Welcome to Old Japan. 10,500–ca. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. [193], Japan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. The official Japanese missions to Tang dynasty of China, which began in the year 630,[70] ended during the ninth century, though informal missions of monks and scholars continued, and thereafter the development of native Japanese forms of art and poetry accelerated. Tokyo is Japan's capital and largest city; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, F… [281] The reasons for this include the abolition of government censorship, low film production costs, expanded access to new film techniques and technologies, and huge domestic audiences at a time when other forms of recreation were relatively scarce. [249] Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide. [36] Prince Shōtoku, an advocate of Buddhism and of the Soga cause, who was of partial Soga descent, served as regent and de facto leader of Japan from 594 to 622. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. [41] The true aim of the reforms was to bring about greater centralization and to enhance the power of the imperial court, which was also based on the governmental structure of China. China and Korea have found official apologies, such as those of the Emperor in 1990 and the Murayama Statement of 1995, inadequate or insincere. However, in the same year the far-reaching Peace Preservation Law also passed, prescribing harsh penalties for political dissidents. [137] The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. [94][95] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value. [292], Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program, its purpose was to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. [42] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium. [210] The capital city Tokyo has a population of 13.8 million (2018). [228], Japan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. The economic bubble popped in 1989, and stock and land prices plunged as Japan entered a deflationary spiral. [154] The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are common in the Japanese work environment. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. In Perez, Louis G. (2010). Yoritomo and his retainers thus became the de facto rulers of Japan. [142][143][144][145], Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP,[146] and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity as of 2019[update]. [190] In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) from Tanegashima Space Center. [67] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Set to a natural rate and added in sound for ambiance. Ehime (eds.). Yamaguchi, 36. Following another civil war – the Later Three-Year War – Fujiwara no Kiyohira took full power; his family, the Northern Fujiwara, controlled northern Honshu for the next century from their capital Hiraizumi. [173][174], Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. "Reiwa: Japan Prepares to Enter New Era of 'Fortunate Harmony'". Index » World coins » Asia » Japan old. It is commonly accepted that the tomb was built for Emperor Nintoku. [88], Takauji and many other samurai soon became dissatisfied with Emperor Go-Daigo's Kenmu Restoration, an ambitious attempt to monopolize power in the imperial court. "Eastern Japanese Pottery During the Jomon-Yayoi Transition: A Study in Forager-Farmer Interaction". For other uses, see. [279], Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. In 2020, Tokyo was supposed to host the Summer Olympics for the second time since 1964. The popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, dates from the 16th century. Fukuoka The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [287] Japan's system of lifetime employment largely collapsed and unemployment rates rose. [167], Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods". The American Perry Expedition in 1853–54 more completely ended Japan's seclusion; this contributed to the fall of the shogunate and the return of power to the emperor during the Boshin War in 1868. Although prostitution is technically illegal in Japan today, it was … In the Battle of Fukuda Bay the daimyō Matsura Takanobu attacked two Portuguese trade vessels at Hirado port. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 ended with the dramatic Battle of Tsushima, which was another victory for Japan's military. [263] The Korean War (1950–1953) was a major boon to Japanese business. [38] By 670, a variant of this expression, Nihon, established itself as the official name of the nation, which has persisted to this day. [237] In 1944 the US Army captured the island of Saipan, which allowed the United States to begin widespread bombing raids on the Japanese mainland. "Japan". [274], Japan became a member of the United Nations in 1956 and further cemented its international standing in 1964, when it hosted the Olympic Games in Tokyo. Kobayashi, Seiji (2014). While single old farm houses are preserved at open air museums, there are a few remote villages that have preserved an appearance of past centuries. Okayama [321][322][323] Three Japanese drivers have achieved podium finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in addition to success in domestic championships. [191] The island of Taiwan was thus ceded to Japan in 1895,[192] and Japan's government gained enough international prestige to allow Foreign Minister Mutsu Munemitsu to renegotiate the "unequal treaties". "Sakoku (1633–1854)". The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. [11], The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. The symbol of the growing power of Japan's new leaders was the kofun burial mounds they constructed from around 250 CE onwards. The new date for the Olympics are scheduled from July 23 to August 8 2021. [295], On March 11, 2011, one of the largest earthquakes recorded in Japan occurred in the northeast. [131] The central government of the shogunate in Edo, which quickly became the most populous city in the world,[124] took counsel from a group of senior advisors known as rōjū and employed samurai as bureaucrats. [248] The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. [110] He had the famous Kinkaku-ji or "Temple of the Golden Pavilion" built in Kyoto in 1397. Envoys and students were dispatched to China to learn about Chinese writing, politics, art, and religion. [194] The country has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers (750,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers (620,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 130,000 kilometers (81,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers (34,011 miles) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers (4748 miles) of national expressways as of 2017[update]. [97], In spite of the war, Japan's relative economic prosperity, which had begun in the Kamakura period, continued well into the Muromachi period. 29. 1 : 4500000 R. … [250], The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD ranks the knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as the third best in the world. [55], Throughout the Heian period, the power of the imperial court declined. [211] It is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 people (2016). [87] Fewer famines and epidemics allowed cities to grow and commerce to boom. About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities. [10] Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese reading of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. [65] Though Taira no Kiyomori died in 1181, the ensuing bloody Genpei War between the Taira and Minamoto families continued for another four years. There was also a serious attempt to overthrow the Imperial house during the middle Nara period. [103] The engagement led the Portuguese traders to find a safe harbour for their ships that took them to Nagasaki. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. In old Japan, by creek and bay, The blue plum-blossoms blow, Where birds with sea-blue plumage gay Through sea-blue branches go: Dragons are coiling down below Like dragons on a fan; And pig-tailed sailors lurching slow Through streets of old Japan. [288] Hansei (反省) is a central idea in Japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one's own mistake and to pledge improvement. [76] The habitable zones, mainly in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities: Japan is one of the most densely populated countries. In Edstrom, Bert (ed.). [269], The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. [201] The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015,[202] and since then several other nuclear power plants have been restarted. [11] The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of Jōmon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay. [222] In February 1936 young radical officers of the Imperial Japanese Army attempted a coup d'état. [164] The two domains went on to form an alliance. [328] The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship[329] and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. Miyazaki [268], By 1955, the Japanese economy had grown beyond prewar levels,[269] and by 1968 it had become the second largest capitalist economy in the world. [16] Historian Hanihara Kazurō has suggested that the annual immigrant influx from the continent ranged from 350 to 3,000. By 1450 Japan's population stood at ten million, compared to six million at the end of the thirteenth century. To a certain extent, demography dictates the hegemony of the old in Japan. In 1203, her father, Hōjō Tokimasa, was appointed regent to the shogun, Yoritomo's son Minamoto no Sanetomo. [178] Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the second highest in the world,[179] with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget as of 2017[update]. Kiyomori used his victory to accumulate power for himself in Kyoto and even installed his own grandson Antoku as emperor. Ibaraki [96], The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese esthetics and imported ideas. [99] The Europeans also brought Christianity, which soon came to have a substantial following in Japan reaching 350,000 believers. As a result, the dispute and power struggle between both clans led to the Heiji rebellion in 1160. [238] Other minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, as well as the animist beliefs of the Ainu. About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.48 million on narrow coastal plains. [12] Jōmon pottery is generally accepted to be among the oldest in East Asia and the world. [124] In 1603, Emperor Go-Yōzei declared Tokugawa Ieyasu shōgun, and Ieyasu abdicated two years later to groom his son as the second shōgun of what became a long dynasty. [166], The emperor was restored to nominal supreme power,[167] and in 1869, the imperial family moved to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo ("eastern capital"). [63] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. [142] In the area of numeracy – approximated by an index measuring people's ability to report an exact rather than a rounded age (age-heaping method), and which level shows a strong correlation to later economic development of a country – Japan's level was comparable to that of north-west European countries, and moreover, Japan's index came close to the 100 percent mark throughout the nineteenth century. 21. Japan the island is 15 million years old, the current imperial family has been around since ~538 AD, and the current political system in Japan began with the reforms of 1868 (the Meiji Restoration - Wikipedia ), and was established by the Meiji constitution of 1889 which established parliamentary rule … [300] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 17th century. Tokugawa (Edo) Period: 1600-1868 CE Economy and Society. [23], Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. In 1189, after Hidehira's death, his successor Yasuhira attempted to curry favor with Yoritomo by attacking Yoshitsune's home. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. [44], In 710, the government constructed a grandiose new capital at Heijō-kyō (modern Nara) modeled on Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang dynasty. The proportion of the population working in agriculture shrank from 75 percent in 1872 to 50 percent by 1920. [60], During the early Heian period, the imperial court successfully consolidated its control over the Emishi people of northern Honshu. [151] Geisha, a new profession of entertainers, also became popular. Only two percent of the population were eligible to vote, and legislation proposed in the House required the support of the unelected upper house, the House of Peers. After consolidating its control over Hokkaido (through the Hokkaidō Development Commission) and annexing the Ryukyu Kingdom (the "Ryūkyū Disposition"), it next turned its attention to China and Korea. [127] Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. In 784, the capital moved briefly to Nagaoka-kyō, then again in 794 to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto), which remained the capital until 1868. [134] To prevent further foreign ideas from sowing dissent, the third Tokugawa shogun, Iemitsu, implemented the sakoku ("closed country") isolationist policy under which Japanese people were not allowed to travel abroad, return from overseas, or build ocean-going vessels. [80], In 1221, the retired Emperor Go-Toba instigated what became known as the Jōkyū War, a rebellion against the shogunate, in an attempt to restore political power to the court. "Chronology of the Earliest Pottery in East Asia: Progress and Pitfalls". [77], After Yoritomo's death in 1199, the office of shogun weakened. [84] Discontent among the samurai proved decisive in ending the Kamakura shogunate. Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. In Reischauer, Edwin et al. 4. [29][37] Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyōs;[38] his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. [74] Japan's main import markets as of 2019[update] were China (23.5 percent), the United States (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). Nakagawa, Ryohei et al. [211] The Great Kantō earthquake in September 1923 left over 100,000 dead, and combined with the resultant fires destroyed the homes of more than three million. [122][123], Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Okinawa was the last to be returned in 1972. [189], The Japanese military played a key role in Japan's expansion abroad. [236], About 90% of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants as of 2016[update]. [186] Schools nationwide instilled patriotic values and loyalty to the emperor. [200] By May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. However, due to the global outbreak and economic impact of COVID-19 Pandemic, the Summer Olympics were ultimately postponed to 2021. Japan thus laid claim to Korea as a protectorate in 1905, followed by full annexation in 1910. [81] Japan has 111 active volcanoes. The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times around 30,000 BCE. 28. 14. [257], Shigeru Yoshida served as prime minister in 1946–1947 and 1948–1954, and played a key role in guiding Japan through the occupation. These high levels of both literacy and numeracy were part of the socio-economical foundation for Japan's strong growth rates during the following century. Fukushima, 8. [228], The United States opposed Japan's invasion of China and responded with increasingly stringent economic sanctions intended to deprive Japan of the resources to continue its war in China. In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. [9] Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. [2] Japan has the sixth longest coastline in the world at 29,751 km (18,486 mi). 13. Fairbank, John K., Edwin Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig. [48] Emperor Shōmu (r. 724–749) feared his lack of piousness had caused the trouble and so increased the government's promotion of Buddhism, including the construction of the temple Tōdai-ji in 752.

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