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The Hausa are culturally and historically closest to other Sahelian ethnic groups, primarily the Fula; the Zarma and Songhai (in Tillabery, Tahoua and Dosso in Niger); the Kanuri and Shuwa Arabs (in Chad, Sudan and northeastern Nigeria); the Tuareg (in Agadez, Maradi and Zinder); the Gur and Gonja (in northeastern Ghana, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and upper Benin); Gwari (in central Nigeria); and the Mandinka, Bambara, Dioula and Soninke (in Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Ivory Coast and Guinea). The Hausa people who live in the rural areas are known as Maguzawa. Orthodox Sunni Islam of the Maliki madhhab, is the predominant and historically established religion of the Hausa people. The people of Northern Nigeria constitute the Hausa and Fulani (Fulbe) tribes. The Hausa people are found in various parts of West Africa. (2009) found the Hausa to be most closely related to Nilo-Saharan populations from Chad and South Sudan. Thirty percent of all Hausa can be found in the north and northwest regions of Nigeria, an area known as "Hausaland." Practices include the sacrifice of animals for personal ends, but it is not legitimate to practise Maguzanci magic for harm. The tribes in Nigeria are grouped into two categories: the majority and the minority. Most religions in the world today is about 90% culture-based. Since majority of Hausas are Muslims, they do nothing that Holy Quran forbids. Some of the most prominent ethnic groups include the likes of the Fulani, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, and Ijaw. How Traditional Marriage Rites is Done In Hausa Land The Hausa ethnic group is the most populous ethnic group in Nigeria and the most dominant tribe in Northern Nigeria. [16][2] The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and the sparse savanna areas of southern Niger and northern Nigeria respectively, numbering over 70 million people with significant indigenized populations in Benin, Cameroon, Ivory Coast,[17] Chad, Sudan, Central African Republic,[18] Republic of the Congo,[19] Togo, Ghana,[20] Eritrea,[10] Equatorial Guinea,[21] Gabon, Senegal and the Gambia. The Hausas form the majority of the people inhabiting the middle belt and northern states of Nigeria. Since the 1950s boko has been the main alphabet for Hausa. The savannah region in northern Nigeria is the home of the Hausa people. The Hausa cultural practices stand unique in Nigeria and have withstood the test of time due to strong traditions, cultural pride as well as an efficient precolonial native system of government. Nok's social system is thought to have been highly advanced. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE YORUBA, IGBO AND HAUSA TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS IN NIGERIA Family Life Yoruba: Family life is the foundation of Yoruba culture, as I have learned and I have been told and shown. Most of the religious practices in their African Traditional rel… Throughout Africa, there is a strong connection between Hausa and Islam. The Nok culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1000 BCE and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 AD in the region of West Africa. Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. Interestingly, these tribes are not only divided along tribal lines, but also along religion lines.. [64] One of the most significant Sultans was Siddiq Abubakar III, who held the position for 50 years from 1938 to 1988. It became an important centre for learning, attracting scholars and students from far and wide, and later served as a kind of university. [57] [75] The main Hausa-speaking area is northern Nigeria and Niger. It is a 50-foot edifice located in the centre of the city of Katsina, the capital of Katsina State. It incorporates the old religion's elements of African Traditional Religion and magic.[77]. The Hausa/Fulani are considered the largest ethnic group in Nigeria, followed closely by the Yoruba and then the Igbo. Most Nigerians will agree that majority of Nigerian foods are produced or cultivated in the Northern part of... Dressing. Ever before the commencement of colonialism, the people of what later became known as Nigeria were living under different administration or political arrangements. Across the Nigerian borders the Hausas are natives of the northern parts of many West African countries. The Hausas, located in the Northern […] Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. [66] The Sokoto area was treated as just another emirate within the Nigerian Protectorate. The Hausa were famous throughout the Middle Ages for their cloth weaving and dyeing, cotton goods, leather sandals, metal locks, horse equipment and leather-working and export of such goods throughout the west African region as well as to north Africa (Hausa leather was erroneously known to medieval Europe as Moroccan leather[78]). Christopher Ehret has suggested that iron smelting was independently discovered in the region prior to 1000 BC. Hausa: history, culture, traditions, dressing, food, interesting facts . S15). [51] By the 12th century AD the Hausa were becoming one of Africa's major trading powers, competing with Kanem-Bornu and the Mali Empire. These states have satellite towns which are Zamfara, Kebbi, Yauri, Gwari, Nupe, and Kororofa. Hausa men traditionally wear shirts with narrow sleeves. In time, the writers spurred a unique genre known as Kano market literature — so named because the books are often self-published and sold in the markets of Nigeria. They constitute the largest ethnic group in the area, which also contains another large group, the Fulani , perhaps one-half of whom are settled among the Hausa as a ruling class, having adopted the Hausa language and culture . The Hausa are the largest ethnic group in Sub-Saharan Africa. Through the Hausa language, it is thus possible to convey a very specific concept of the perception of health within the society. You can often meet men in trousers and long shirt (robe called juanni) over the narrow-sleeve-shirt that has an embroidered collar. Depending on their location and occupation, they may wear the turban around this to veil the face, called Alasho. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), largest ethnic group in sub-Saharan Africa, "Nigerian Eritreans - The history of Hausa and Bargo in Eritrea", "All In The Language Family: The Afro-Asiatic Languages", "» Horse Talk: Horse Breeding in Niger Esther Garvi: Niger, West Africa", "La famille chamito-sémitique (ou afro-asiatique)", "Karatun Allo: The Islamic System Of Elementary Education In Hausaland", "404 Error Page - University of Liverpool",, "Hausa City States (Nigeria) - The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed", "Spread of Islam in West Africa (part 3 of 3): The Empires of Kanem-Bornu and Hausa-Fulani Land", "Saudi Aramco World : From Africa, in Ajami", "50 Greatest Africans - Sarki Muhammad Rumfa & Emperor Semamun", "Caravans Across the Desert: Marketplace", Colonialism by Proxy, Hausa Imperial Agents and Middle Belt Consciousness in Nigeria, "Population and Agriculture in the Sokoto-Rima Basin of North-West Nigeria: A Study of Political Intervention, Adaptation and Change, 1800-1980", "Hausa language, alphabets and pronunciation", "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History", "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans", "Nigerian roadside barbecue shacks thrive in the midst of Islamist insurgency", The Subversive Women Who Self-Publish Novels Amid Jihadist War, Hausa Information at Art and Life in Africa Online,, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles needing the year an event occurred from May 2018, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 April 2021, at 20:38. Biram 2. Amina is credited as the architectural overseer who created the strong earthen walls that surround her city, which were the prototype for the fortifications used in all Hausa states. On 13 March 1903 at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British Rule. In fact a large number of Fulani living in Hausa regions cannot speak Fulfulde at all and speak Hausa as their first language. #6 Hausa folklore. They traditionally rode on fine Saharan camels and horses. Females wear colorful wrapper called zani that looks cute with a head tie, matching blouse and scaves. Usually, breakfast consists of cakes and dumplings made from ground beans and fried, known as kosai; or made from wheat flour soaked for a day, fried and served with sugar or chili, known as funkaso. She honed her military skills and became famous for her bravery and military exploits, as she is celebrated in song as "Amina, daughter of Nikatau, a woman as capable as a man. Everything roots from the family unit and this can’t be ignored. She subsequently built many of these fortifications, which became known as ganuwar Amina or Amina's walls, around various conquered cities. He and Korau discussed the idea of building a mosque to serve as a centre for spiritual and intellectual activities. [22] Still a status symbol of the traditional nobility in Hausa society, the horse still features in the Eid day celebrations, known as Ranar Sallah (in English: the Day of the Prayer). Dambe's primary weapon is the “spear”, a single dominant hand wrapped from fist to forearm in thick strips of cotton bandage that is held in place by knotted cord dipped in salt and allowed to dry for maximum body damage on opponents, while the other arm, held open, serve as the “shield" to protect fighters head from opponent's blows or used to grab an opponent. The tie-dyed clothing is then richly embroidered in traditional patterns. Such grain-based meals are called tuwo in their native language. Tie-dye techniques have been used in the Hausa region of West Africa for centuries with renowned indigo dye pits located in and around Kano, Nigeria. Kurmi Market is among the oldest and largest local markets in Africa. The Hausa language, a member of Afroasiatic family of languages, has more first-language speakers than any other African language. It is one of the biggest communities here and it has some really unique traditions and cultural practices. In the 16th century, the walls were further extended to their present position. [56] Among Rumfa's accomplishments were extending the city walls, building a large palace, the Gidan Rumfa, promoting slaves to governmental positions and establishing the great Kurmi Market, which is still in use today. Spices and other vegetables, such as spinach, pumpkin, or okra, are added to the soup during preparation. The Hausa population resides mostly in the northern parts of Nigeria. The Muslim religion became the factor that united two similar (but still a bit different) cultures into one Hausa-Fulani Culture. Although the origin of these cultures remains a mystery, legend holds that Bayajidda, a traveler from the Middle East, married the Queen of Daura and bore him seven sons. Yoruba families are, like most African families, dominated by the father. The Hausa people who live in the rural areas are known as Maguzawa. Hausa traditional marriage is based mostly on Islam. The Hausa tribe is one of the three prominent ethnic groups in Nigeria. Below is a list of some facts about the Hausa tribe: The Hausa tribe, as the largest tribe in Nigeria, is also the second largest in the whole of Africa. The Hausa people have been an important factor for the spread of Islam in West Africa. Many Fulani in the region do not distinguish themselves from the Hausa, as they have long intermarried, they share the Islamic religion and more than half of all Nigerian Fulani have integrated into Hausa culture. [80], A modern literary movement led by female Hausa writers has grown since the late 1980s when writer Balaraba Ramat Yakubu came to popularity. All women usually dress up to cover all the main parts of the body. The objectives of her conquests were twofold: extension of her nation beyond its primary borders and reducing the conquered cities to a vassal status. Functions Of Kinship System In Nigeria Culture: So many functions have been seen carried out within the kinship system in Nigeria. It is always amazing when you can see everything with your own eyes. Beans, peanuts, and milk are also served as a complementary protein diet for the Hausa people. These tribes, Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo, are the three major tribes in Nigeria. Their main religion is Islam, although their believers of other religions among Hausas in Nigeria, they are considered to be minorities. It’s always interesting to dig into the Hausa folklore and take a look at their interesting legends one more time. The Hausas and the Fulanis make up a significant portion of Nigeria (by population and even landmass). "[59] [70] Arabic script (ajami) is now only used in Islamic schools and for Islamic literature. This suggests that the Hausa and other modern Chadic-speaking populations originally spoke Nilo-Saharan languages, before adopting languages from the Afroasiatic family after migration into that area thousands of years ago. Hausa Culture and Tradition. Maguzanci, an African Traditional Religion, was practised extensively before Islam. They are mostly Muslims and they speak the Hausa Dialect. There are also large Hausa communities in every major African city in neighbourhoods called zangos or zongos, meaning "caravan camp" in Hausa (denoting the trading post origins of these communities). The British forces won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra.[63]. The refinement of this culture is attested to by the image of a Nok dignitary at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. The major native languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of African languages - the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Yoruba, Ibo, the Hausa language is Afro-Asiatic; and Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily Borno State, is a member of the Nilo-Saharan family. b. The minaret is believed to be one of West Africa's first multi-storey buildings and was once the tallest building in Katsina. The dignitary is portrayed wearing a "crooked baton"[44][45] The dignitary is also portrayed sitting with flared nostrils, and an open mouth suggesting performance. The group speaks the Hausa language that has many dialects. Among the Hausa customs retained by the Fulani was « kinship status », an aspect of community life and practice that was found and still is found even among certain sections of the Southern Regions of Nigeria. They remain one of the largest and most historically grounded civilizations in West Africa. People & Culture People of urbanized areas tend to retain a "cult of spirit possession," known as Bori. Certainly trade influenced religion. The most famous of all Hausa food is most likely Suya, a spicy shish kebab like skewered meat which is a popular food item in various parts of Nigeria and is enjoyed as a delicacy in much of West Africa and balangu or gashi. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Foods preferred by these tribes include vegetables (pumpkin, spinach, okra) with soup or porridge and fish. Islam being accepted as a religion, whatever contradicts its tenets is null and void. (Shillington 338). The Gobarau minaret, a symbol of the state, is an early example of Islamic architecture in a city that prides itself as an important Islamic learning centre. The foundation for the construction of the wall was laid by Sarki Gijimasu from 1095 - 1134 and was completed in the middle of the 14th century. [38] Historically, Katsina was the centre of Hausa Islamic scholarship but was later replaced by Sokoto stemming from the 17th century Usman Dan Fodio Islamic reform.[39]. It is fought in rounds of three or less which have no time limits. Following the construction of the Nigerian railway system, which extended from Lagos in 1896 to Ibadan in 1900 and Kano in 1911, the Hausa of northern Nigeria became major producers of groundnuts. In 2014, in a very controversial move, Ajami was removed from the new 100 Naira banknote.[72]. The Cuisine of Niger. In Hausa villages of northern Nigeria the kitchen rarely exists as a separate room. Hausa-Fulani Culture is spread on the West and North of the country. They are the largest ethnic group in Sub-Sahara Africa, with an estimated population of over 80 million. Calabash in Hausa Culture. This is usually done by drawing a vertical line from below the bottom lip down to the chin. Meat is usually only consumed in small amounts, if at all. Also, similar to Berber, Bedouin, Zarma and Fulani women, Hausa women traditionally use kohl to accentuate facial symmetry. There are also many of them in Cameroon, Benin, Mali etc. TYPES OF CULTURE IN NIGERIA AND THEIR IMPORTANCE. Hausas are about half of Nigeria population and speaks Hausa language though different tribes among the Hausa have local languages. These results are consistent with linguistic and archeological data, suggesting a possible common ancestry of Nilo-Saharan speaking populations from an eastern Sudanese homeland within the past ~10,500 years, with subsequent bi-directional migration westward to Lake Chad and southward into modern day southern Sudan, and more recent migration eastward into Kenya and Tanzania ~3,000 ya (giving rise to Southern Nilotic speakers) and westward into Chad ~2,500 ya (giving rise to Central Sudanic speakers) (S62, S65, S67, S74). Hausa is used as the language of instruction at the elementary level in schools in northern Nigeria, and Hausa is available as course of study in northern Nigerian universities. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok culture in Africa at least by 550 BC and possibly earlier. [20] The men are easily recognizable because of their elaborate dress which is a large flowing gown known as Babban riga also known by various other names due to adaptation by many ethnic groups neighboring the Hausa (see indigo Babban Riga/Gandora). All of these various ethnic groups among and around the Hausa live in the vast and open lands of the Sahel, Saharan and Sudanian regions, and as a result of the geography and the criss crossing network of traditional African trade routes, have had their cultures heavily influenced by their Hausa neighbours, as noted by T.L. [63] Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organised Northern Nigeria Protectorate. Nigeria is replete with rich heritage, culture, and tradition that has been preserved by every tribe, individually. The trip will evolve from the tropical Southwest to the dry North. The Hausa are an ethnic group found in northern Nigeria and southern Niger. Other images show figures on horseback, indicating that the Nok culture possessed the horse. It is also one of the largest groups in West Africa and it has the population of over 30 million. The table below shows Hausa ethnic population distribution by country of indigenization, outside of Nigeria and Niger:[24][25], Daura, in northern Nigeria, is the oldest city of Hausaland. comprised of the Hausa cultures existed as far back the 7th century A.D.. Their long history of city-states and Islamic caliphates, their complex trading economies, and their cultural traditions have attracted the attention of historians, political economists, linguists, and … Hausa people numbering more than 20 million, are the largest ethnic group in west Africa. olygamy in the marriage in the culture is allowed as well as divorce. Some of the most prominent ethnic groupsinclude the likes of the Fulani, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, and Ijaw. The Hausa, traditionally live in small villages as well as in precolonial towns and cities where they grow crops, raise livestock including cattle as well as engage in trade, both local and long distance across Africa. Besides, the wedding style includes gold jewelry. They are not monolithic. Daura 6. Hundreds of languages are spoken in the country, including Yoruba, Igbo, Fula, Hausa, Edo, Ibibio, Tiv, and English. Because Islam has been carried throughout West Africa by Hausa traders and priests, nearly everyone expects a Hausa to be Muslim. The influence of the Hausa language on the languages of many non-Hausa Muslim peoples in Africa is readily apparent. The Hausas have unique cultural practices, their; clothing, food, religion, and marriage are the crucial aspect of their culture. The Brief History Of Hausa People (North-Western Nigerian People) Hausa tribe are the third 3rd most Educated tribe in Nigerian and the first 1st most popular language speaking in Nigeria. The Empire arose in today’s North-Western and North-Central Nigeria. Lunch or dinner usually feature a heavy porridge with soup and stew known as tuwo da miya. They have several practices that are exclusively found among them. With the help of an anthropologist that has studied several Nigerian ethnic groups we will learn about their daily live and taboos. This is the tradition. Today, the current Sultan of Sokoto is regarded as the traditional religious leader (Sarkin Musulmi) of Sunni Hausa-Fulani in Nigeria and beyond. Predominantly Hausa-speaking communities are scattered throughout West Africa and on the traditional Hajj route north and east traversing the Sahara, with an especially large population in and around the town of Agadez. Hausa merchants in each of these cities collected trade items from domestic areas such as leather, dyed cloth, horse gear, metal locks and Kola nuts from the rain forest region to the south through trade or slave raiding, processed (and taxed) them and then sent them north to cities along the Mediterranean. Due to their Arabic roots, the Hausas are predominantly Muslims and very dedicated to their religion. The Empire arose in today’s North-Western and North-Central Nigeria. The latest Nigerian national census indicated the total population of Nigeria was 162 million people belonging to over 500 ethnic groups, the three main ones being the Yoruba, the Igbo, and the Hausa. The greatest population of the Hausas are found in North-western Nigeria, an area known as “Hausaland,” follow… Sultan Muhammad Bello of Sokoto stated that, "She made war upon these countries and overcame them entirely so that the people of Katsina paid tribute to her and the men of Kano and... also made war on cities of Bauchi till her kingdom reached to the sea in the south and the west." Nigerian Tribes Facts: Igbos, Yorubas & Hausas Cultural & Historical Facts. Except in very wet or cold weather cooking takes place in the open courtyard of the multi-generational extended family compound, or gida.Cooking for family members is a female activity shared, or rotated, among co-wives in what are more often than not polygamous households. The Hausa Language has a great international recognition as a language in Nigeria; The first indigenous language in Nigeria that BBC first broadcasted in, is the Hausa language (13 March 1957), followed by Yoruba and Igbo language respectively. It was in Daura where he met the king if … The bride always has beautiful Lali or Mendy henna-drawing on her hands.

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