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[2] Nazi Germany attempted to obtain this new territory by attacking Poland and the Soviet Union, intending to deport or exterminate the Jews and Slavs living there, who were viewed as being inferior to the Aryan master race. They must be dealt with appropriately, since, representing the fruit of natural selection, they are to be regarded as the core of a new Jewish revival.”, The participants discussed a number of other issues raised by the new policy, including the establishment of the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto as a destination for elderly Jews as well Jews who were disabled or decorated in World War I, the deferment until after the war of “Final Solution” measures against Jews married to non-Jews or persons of mixed descent as defined by the Nuremberg laws, prospects for inducing Germany's Axis partners to give up their Jewish populations, and preparatory measures for the “evacuations.”. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW Januar 1942. [48], Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. The purpose of the conference, called by the director of the Reich Main Security Office SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, was to ensure the co-operation of administrative leaders of … [32] He changed the venue on 4 December to the eventual location of the meeting. The men at the table did not deliberate whether such a plan should be undertaken, but instead discussed the implementation of a policy decision that had already been made at the highest level of the Nazi regime. Ullstein, München 2002, ISBN 3-548-36403-9. Despondent at the failure of the project, and the West German government's failure to pursue and convict Nazi war criminals, Wulf committed suicide in 1974. [70] "The representatives of the ministerial bureaucracy had made it plain that they had no concerns about the principle of deportation per se. [75] The museum also hosts permanent exhibits of texts and photographs that document events of the Holocaust and its planning. On 5 December 1941, the Soviet Army began a counter-offensive in front of Moscow, ending the prospect of a rapid conquest of the Soviet Union. They were not to be verbatim: Eichmann ensured that nothing too explicit appeared in them. [43][b] He explained that since further Jewish emigration had been prohibited by Himmler, a new solution would take its place: "evacuating" Jews to the east. This would not apply if they were married to a non-Jew and had children by that marriage. "With this expedient solution", he said, "in one fell swoop, many interventions will be prevented. It would also not apply if they had been granted written exemption by "the highest offices of the Party and State". He said that between 1933 and October 1941, 537,000 German, Austrian, and Czech Jews had emigrated. [76] The Joseph Wulf Bibliothek / Mediothek on the second floor houses a large collection of books on the Nazi era, plus other materials such as microfilms and original Nazi documents. [33], Between the date the invitations to the conference went out (29 November) and the date of the cancelled first meeting (9 December), the situation changed. [22] According to the historian Timothy Snyder, "4.2 million Soviet citizens (largely Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians) were starved" by the Nazis (and the Nazi-controlled Wehrmacht) in 1941–1944 as a result of Backe's plan. TTY: 202.488.0406, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center, SS Major General Heinrich Müller, chief of RSHA Department IV (, SS Colonel Eberhard Schöngarth, commander of the RSHA field office for the Government General in Krakow, Poland, SS Major Rudolf Lange, commander of RSHA Einsatzkommando 2, deployed in Latvia in the autumn of 1941. [1], On 8 January 1942, Heydrich sent new invitations to a meeting to be held on 20 January. [29] By the time planning was underway for the Wannsee Conference, hundreds of thousands of Polish, Serbian, and Russian Jews had already been killed. [57] More difficulty was anticipated with Germany's allies Romania and Hungary. Very soon, 600,000 Jews of Hungary (and parts of Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia occupied by Hungary) were sent to their deaths by Eichmann, with the collaboration of Hungarian authorities. It was not until 1947 that Luther's copy (number 16 out of 30 copies prepared) was found by Robert Kempner, a U.S. prosecutor in the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, in files that had been seized from the German Foreign Office. [64] Copies of the minutes (known from the German word for "minutes" as the "Wannsee Protocol"[e]) were sent by Eichmann to all the participants after the meeting. He had expected a lot of resistance, Eichmann recalled, but instead, he had found "an atmosphere not only of agreement on the part of the participants, but more than that, one could feel an agreement which had assumed a form which had not been expected". Some invitees were involved in these preparations, so Heydrich postponed his meeting. Heydrich convened the Wannsee Conference. [74], On 20 January 1992, on the fiftieth anniversary of the conference, the site was finally opened as a Holocaust memorial and museum known as the Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz (House of the Wannsee Conference). [49], German historian Peter Longerich notes that vague orders couched in terminology that had a specific meaning for members of the regime were common, especially when people were being ordered to carry out criminal activities. [72], Eichmann's biographer David Cesarani agrees with Longerich's interpretation; he notes that Heydrich's main purpose was to impose his own authority on the various ministries and agencies involved in Jewish policy matters, and to avoid any repetition of the disputes that had arisen earlier in the annihilation campaign. [14] Approximately 65,000 civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In large labor columns, separated by gender, able-bodied Jews will be brought to those regions to build roads, whereby a large number will doubtlessly be lost through natural reduction. It was found by Robert Kempner in March 1947 among files that had been seized from the German Foreign Office. [59], Heydrich spoke for nearly an hour. In most of the occupied countries, Jews were rounded up and killed en masse, and anyone who lived in or identified with the Jewish community in any given place was regarded as a Jew. [18] The minutes of the Wannsee Conference estimated the Jewish population of the Soviet Union to be five million, including nearly three million in Ukraine. [50] The wording of the Wannsee Protocol—the distributed minutes of the meeting—made it clear to participants that evacuation east was a euphemism for death. [26], At the time of the Wannsee Conference, the killing of Jews in the Soviet Union had already been underway for some months. After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the extermination of European Jewry began, and the killings continued and accelerated after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. [30][67] The decision to exterminate the Jews had already been made, and Heydrich, as Himmler's emissary, held the meeting to ensure the cooperation of the various departments in conducting the deportations. Hiroshima, (film TV), regia di Koreyoshi Kurahara e Roger Spottiswoode (1995) Paradise Road, regia di Bruce Beresford (1997) ... La Conferenza di Wannsee (Die Wannsee Konferenz), regia di Heinz Schrik (1984) La diciassettesima sposa (The 17th Bride), regia di Nadav Levitan (1985) Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Dr. Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, Office of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan, Reich Minister and head of the Reich Chancellery SS-, This page was last edited on 29 March 2021, at 23:15. If such a marriage had produced children who were being raised as Germans, the Jewish partner would not be killed. [71] Their presence at the meeting also ensured that all those present were accomplices and accessories to the murders that were about to be undertaken. The building was in use as a school, and funding was not available. The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April of that year, excluded most Jews from the legal profession and the civil service. Heydrich indicated that approximately 11,000,000 Jews in Europe would fall under the provisions of the "Final Solution." The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of German officials to discuss and implement the so-called “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” (mass killing). Heydrich assured him that this was already the policy; such Jews would not be killed. For Jews residing in the Greater German Reich and holding the status of subjects of the German Reich, the Nuremberg Laws would serve as a basis for determining who was a Jew. The Wannsee Conference (German: Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. It was used as evidence in the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials. Legalized discrimination against Jews in Germany began immediately after the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933. At the time of the Wannsee Conference, most participants were already aware that the Nazi regime had engaged in mass murder of Jews and other civilians in the German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union and in Serbia. [54] Persons in these latter categories would be killed even if married to non-Jews. Heydrich announced that Mischlinge (mixed-race persons) of the first degree (persons with two Jewish grandparents) would be treated as Jews. [12] The Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen (Special Prosecution Book Poland)—lists of people to be killed—had been drawn up by the SS as early as May 1939. In the course of the meeting, Heydrich outlined how European Jews would be rounded up and sent to extermination camps in the General Government (the occupied part of Poland), where they would be killed.[1]. Heydrich did not call the meeting to make fundamental new decisions on the Jewish question. [37], The war was still ongoing, and since transporting masses of people into a combat zone was impossible, Heydrich decided that the Jews currently living in the General Government (the German-occupied area of Poland) would be killed in extermination camps set up in occupied areas of Poland, as would Jews from the rest of Europe. [39], Heydrich invited representatives from several government ministries, including state secretaries from the Foreign Office, the Justice, Interior, and State Ministries, and representatives from the SS. During the conversation they minced no words about it at all ... they spoke about methods of killing, about liquidation, about extermination". Main telephone: 202.488.0400 [27] He instructed that any pogroms spontaneously initiated by the occupants of the conquered territories were to be quietly encouraged. Mark Roseman, The Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2002). The Reich government declared war on the U.S. on 11 December. [4] Violence and economic pressure were used by the regime to force Jews to leave the country. Epochendarstellung mit Sammlungsobjekten, Foto-, Audio- und Filmdokumenten, Biografien, Chroniken, Zeitzeugen. Under the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, their status had been left deliberately ambiguous. Wählen Sie aus den über 30 Bootstouren und erkunden Sie ganz Berlin mit dem Schiff vom Wasser aus! [60] Otto Hofmann (head of the SS Race and Settlement Main Office; RuSHA) and Wilhelm Stuckart (State Secretary of the Reich Interior Ministry) pointed out the legalistic and administrative difficulties over mixed marriages, and suggested compulsory dissolution of mixed marriages or the wider use of sterilisation as a simpler alternative. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust, On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials gathered at a villa in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss and coordinate the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question.".

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